US bankruptcy code is very specific regarding how to file bankruptcy.
Bankruptcy code is very confusing and deals with all of the many different types of bankruptcy that a business or person can file. It's important to note that even though people can file different bankruptcy forms, there is still only one main bankruptcy code which deals with all of the different types of bankruptcy in the United States. By "filing chapter 11", or "filing chapter 7", the company is just filing under which chapter of the code best fits its situation.
There are several major differences between the chapters that are in bankruptcy code. For instance, there is a difference between the two most common chapters for bankruptcy filings. Chapter 7 is also called "liquidation" and what happens in this chapter is that all of the extra assets of that company or person are sold off in order to pay most of the outstanding debts. Everything that can be sold for this purpose will be sold, and the debtor will only be left with the few items that can be held back due to exemptions.
Something important to consider about chapter 7 bankruptcy is that the person will still have enough exempted items to hopefully put his or her life back together. This type of bankruptcy is most common when the person in question does not have the resources necessary to pay off his or her debts. Bankruptcy code both explains exactly how to legally go about putting this type of bankruptcy into effect as well as mentioning any special tax provisions that might apply in this case.
The other chapters that are commonly filed under in US bankruptcy code include chapter 11, which is reorganization - basically reorganizing the business or financial situation so that it is possible to pay off all debts in the future. The other two types of bankruptcy are not filed by businesses - chapter 12 is specific to farmers who have personal debts, and chapter 13 is specific to other people with personal debts. In order to file under any of these three chapters, you or your company must have a steady income, and be able to prove this. Once it is proven, your finances will be reorganized so that you can pay off your debts and eventually improve your credit rating.